nm comparison

nm comparison

Thursday, December 22, 2011

Blog Post 16: Dr. Matt Ray Presentation

Yesterday we had a very informative talk on nanoparticles termed colloids. Dr. Ray showed some great images and videos of nanoparticles in solutions.

I just saw this blog! 

1. Describe your observation of the common liquid in which he started his talk.
I was 5 minutes late for class and must have missed this part.  Although I thought what He presented to the class was one of the most interesting pieces and applications of nano.
2. Dr. Ray explain two ways in which keep small particles from sticking to themselves and aggregating in to large masses. He explained that the surface area of these particles is important to maintain to feel the benefits of the nanosize. Explain those two methods that he described

he talked about the large football huddle or "fight" huddle. 

He talked about the two lines coming togethar and meeting and then being forced apart.  I didn't understand the surface area part being important for not sticking together... but I do remember the object having  the surface area the size of a football field.

Blog Post 15: Dr. Asthana Presentation

Dr. Rajiv Asthana presented to our class his work on nano and micro materials. There were two topics that were of particular interest. For this post I would like for you to explore the topics/questions below:

1. What are grains and grain boundaries in a material? I suggest you focus on metals. Explain how material properties are affected by the size of these grains.

2. How does one engineer or process materials to reduce the grain size? In particular, I would like for you to explore and then explain how single crystal silicon is produced for the solar industry.

Dr. Schultz,

I was gone on my career development conference this week.  Is there anything I can do to make up this blog?


Tuesday, December 13, 2011

Blog Post 14: Final Exam/Project

The final invention project is Due Dec 19, Monday and to be presented to the class during the final exam period which is at 10:00 am in room 150.

An electronic file needs to be submitted of the presentation and the poster to Dr. Schultz. Please submit these in the dropbox on the D2L site.

Tuesday, November 22, 2011

Blog Post 13: Nano and Proteins Guest Speaker

1.. Post a brief description (and link) to a general overview of MALDI.

A great resource for protein is at the Protein Data Bank at: http://www.pdb.org/pdb/home/home.do
primary can make structures...like a spring
Trtiary Structure- alpha beta structures ... we are able to make models.
Dalton = unit of mass. Think molecular mass- molecular mass of a given molecule of mass = 20 kDa (20,000 Dalton)

m/z = mass to charge ratio... MALDI requires ionization.
MALDI-TOF Mass Spectometry... put dry plate in a vaccuum to observe. need matrix (yellow stuff on sample plate) ionizes assisted laser absorbtion.

KE = 1/2 mv62
Time of Flight (TOF)
Bradykinen(1080.210) and Neurotensin (1673.932) = biological structures that do stuff. 5 parts per million can tell exact identification. (Accurate Mass)
MALDI lets you visualize.
MALDi TOF-TOF = get peptide sequence information. very exciting biological studies like multiple sclorosis. Sample lake water... spin down the cells... put on plate... profile cynobacteria isolated from lakewater. Cool part is it takes minutes to get profile! Hospitals can use this with patients and analyzing there bacteria. Snake venim is another popular profiling use.

2. Post an image (3D) of the following proteins: microcystin LR, collagen, and pick another one of your favorite proteins.


3. Post the size of each of these proteins in nanometers.
microcystin LR = 2.496 nm
collagen = 5.364nm
hemoglobin = 4.124 nm

4. Research and post a cool nano-application that involves proteins.
Nanotechnology drives protein engineering, new approach to drug discovery
(Nanowerk News) Using a nanoscale spring built from a molecule of DNA, investigators from the University of California, Los Angeles, have taken a significant step toward a new approach to protein engineering. This new tack to modifying protein function, note the researchers, could lead to novel ways of killing cancer cells.

Sunday, November 20, 2011

Blog Post 12: Invention Background/References

Post 10 references to your invention project. Post a brief paragraph of the summary of each of your references. These references must be from the primary literature which can be accessed through the UW-Stout library. I suggest utilizing Web of Science and Science Citation Index.

1.  Surface modification of conductive PEDOT coated textile yarns with silicone resin
Author(s): Bashir, T (Bashir, T.)1; Skrifvars, M (Skrifvars, M.)1; Persson, NK (Persson, N-K)2
Source: MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 135-139 DOI: 10.1179/175355511X13007211258926 Published: JUL 2011
Times Cited: 0 (from Web of Science)
 Electroactive textile fibres and fabrics have been used in smart and interactive clothing for medical, military and sports applications. The improved surface properties of conductive textiles are required for their successful integration in all of the above mentioned applications. This paper presents the production of conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coated viscose yarns in longer length, i.e. 5 m, and the surface modification of the coated yarns by treating with silicone solution. The structural properties of silicone coated conductive yarns were then investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The effect of silicone coating on the mechanical, electrical and hydrophobic properties was also evaluated and then compared with the PEDOT coated viscose yarns without surface treatment. Results show that the mechanical and hydrophobic properties of conductive yarns were improved by surface modification with silicone without affecting their structural properties. The surface modified PEDOT coated yarns could be used as pressure and stretch sensors in health care applications.

2. Counterion Exchange to Achieve Reversibly Switchable Hydrophobicity and Oleophobicity on Fabrics
Author(s): Yang, J (Yang, Jin)1,2; Zhang, ZZ (Zhang, Zhaozhu)1; Men, XH (Men, Xuehu)1; Xu, XH (Xu, Xianghui)1,2; Zhu, XT (Zhu, Xiaotao)1,2; Zhou, XY (Zhou, Xiaoyan)1,2
Source: LANGMUIR Volume: 27 Issue: 12 Pages: 7357-7360 DOI: 10.1021/la201117e Published: JUN 21 2011

Abstract: We describe a simple layer-by-layer (LbL) technology and counterion exchange procedure to tune the liquid wettability of commercially available cotton fabrics. A polyelectrolyte multilayer is deposited on the fabric surface by the LbL technology, and counterion exchange is used to control the surface composition and thereby to modulate the solid surface energy. The tunability of the solid surface energy, along with the inherent re-entrant texture of the cotton fabric, results in simultaneously switchable wettability between a nonwetting state and a fully wetted state for water and hexadecane. This switchable hydrophobicity and oleophobicity can be explained within a robustness factor, which is a quantitative criterion for the transition between the two states. The counterion exchange can be confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.
3.  Chemical assembly of TiO(2) and TiO(2)@Ag nanoparticles on silk fiber to produce multifunctional fabrics
Author(s): Li, GH (Li, Guohong)1; Liu, H (Liu, Hong)1; Zhao, HS (Zhao, Hongshi)1; Gao, YQ (Gao, Yuqiang)1; Wang, JY (Wang, Jiyang)1; Jiang, HD (Jiang, Huaidong)1; Boughton, RI (Boughton, R. I.)2
Source: JOURNAL OF COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE Volume: 358 Issue: 1 Pages: 307-315 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2011.02.053 Published: JUN 1 2011

A carefully designed surface modification technique for the manufacture of multifunctional silk textile nanocomposite materials is successfully developed by the functionalization of silk with TiO(2) and TiO(2)@Ag nanoparticles (NPs). The NPs are assembled onto a silk substrate through covalent linkages, including enediol ligand-metal oxide bonding, resin dehydration and the acylation of silk. Owing to the strong chemical bonding, silk fibroin fabric (SFF) and the NPs form a stable composite system. The functionalized SFF, especially TiO(2)@Ag NP-functionalized SFF are endowed with remarkable UV protection properties, and an efficient anti-bacterial capability toward Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, the nearly total photodegradation of methylene orange (MO) under UV illumination illustrates that functionalized SFF possesses high photocatalytic and self-cleaning capability. This multifunctional silk material satisfies the market demand for natural "smart" products, and is a promising practical material for use in the textile industry, hospital sterilization and environmental cleanup. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

4.  Fabrication of Super Water Repellent Silver Flake/Copolymer Blend Films and Their Potential as Smart Fabrics
Author(s): Bayer, IS (Bayer, I. S.)1,2; Biswas, A (Biswas, A.)3; Ellialtioglu, G (Ellialtioglu, G.)4
Source: POLYMER COMPOSITES Volume: 32 Issue: 4 Pages: 576-585 DOI: 10.1002/pc.21081 Published: APR 2011
 A facile technique is demonstrated for the fabrication of super water repellent co-polymer blend-silver composite films from fatty acid surface functionalized fine silver flakes. Initially, high concentrations of surface functionalized silver flakes were dispersed in poly(vinyl chloride-co-vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) copolymer in solution to form electrically conducting adhesives/paints (ECAs) with a bulk resistivity of similar to 3 x 10(-5) Omega cm. The solvent-borne ECAs were then blended with a water-dispersed perfluoromethacrylate copolymer (Zonyl 8740) using a simple solvent-inversion process to obtain super water-repellent colloidal copolymer blend-silver emulsions. The colloidal emulsions could be spray-deposited on a number of fibrous substrates including fabrics and paper. A particular example is demonstrated herein by spray-depositing these emulsions onto molten paraffin wax-based laminates (60 degrees C), which were partially impregnated into fabrics to fabricate highly water repellent, flexible, and thermoresponsive fabrics. A paraffin wax/polyolefin blend base film was used for the purpose. The surface topology of the superhydrophobic copolymer/silver composite films displayed fractal-like hierarchical structures ideal for self-cleaning hydrophobicity. On relatively low-absorbent permeable porous surfaces such as cellulosic films (paper) impregnated with wax/polyolefin films, self-cleaning ability of the coatings was maintained even for temperatures at which paraffin wax component of the laminated film was molten indicated by low-water roll-off angles. Hence, the composites have excellent compatibility with organic phase change materials such as paraffin wax and wax/polyolefin blends, and they can be used to fabricate nonwetting, thermoregulated, and electroactive fabrics. Antimicrobial properties of silver offer additional advantages for potential biomedical applications. POLYM. COMPOS., 32: 576-585, 2011. (C) 2011 Society of Plastics Engineers

5. Performance Evaluation of Textile-Based Electrodes and Motion Sensors for Smart Clothing
Author(s): Cho, G (Cho, Gilsoo)1; Jeong, K (Jeong, Keesam)2; Paik, MJ (Paik, Min Joo)1; Kwun, Y (Kwun, Youngeun)1; Sung, M (Sung, Moonsoo)1
Source: IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL Volume: 11 Issue: 12 Pages: 3183-3193 DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2011.2167508 Published: DEC 2011
Abstract: Development of textile-based electrodes and motion sensors is one of the main issues of recent smart textile research utilizing electronic textiles. Electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes have been developed by various textile technologies such as sputtering or electroless-plating on the fabric surfaces, and embroidering or knitting with stainless steel yarns. In addition, two types of motion sensors have also been developed using piezo-resistive textiles. They were fabricated by knitting and braiding.

To examine the usability of the ECG electrode, waveforms of the conventional AgCl electrode, and the new electrodes developed in our lab were compared. It was found that electrodes using metallic embroidering are more efficient when its substrate was a metal blended fabric. The electrolessly Cu/Ni plated fabrics obtained the best conductivity in textile-based electrodes. The first motion-measuring textile-based sensor was used to predict and measure the changes in electric resistances that accompany the angle changes in the elbow joint. An advanced piezo-resistive textile by braiding showed more accurate resistance changes and also better durability. Changes in its electrical resistance were mapped to changes in its length extension. From the relationship between the extension and the electrical resistance, movement or posture of human body was detected.

6. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Thermostatic Fabrics Treated with Nanoencapsulated Phase Change Materials
Author(s): Choi, K (Choi, Kyeyoun)2; Cho, G (Cho, Gilsoo)1
Source: JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE Volume: 121 Issue: 6 Pages: 3238-3245 DOI: 10.1002/app.33870 Published: SEP 15 2011
Abstract: Textiles treated with nanoencapsulated phase change materials (nanoPCMs) were used to examine their suitability as clothing materials to prepare thermostatic clothes for absorbing or releasing heat according to heat fluctuation between the body and the environment. To this end, the physical and mechanical properties of fabrics treated with nanoPCMs, such as nano-nonadecane and nano-octadecane, were evaluated after we confirmed the morphology and thermal efficiency of the nanoPCMs. The nanoPCMs were almost spherical, with an irregular size distribution between 200 and 400 nm. The heat of fusion and peak temperature of melting for nano-nonadecane, nano-octadecane, and a balanced mix were measured at 102.6 J/g and 33.6 degrees C, 144.7 J/g and 29.8 degrees C, and 137.4 J/g and 31.8 degrees C, respectively. However, the heat of fusion of the vapor-permeable and water-repellant (VPWR) fabrics treated with the nanoPCMs were only 6.8, 4.0, and 3.6 J/g, respectively, because the weight of fabric was added per unit area. The air permeability of the specimens without nanoPCMs was the lowest; that of the VPWR fabrics with nanoPCMs was relatively higher. The water vapor transmission of the VPWR fabrics with nanoPCMs was higher than the fabric without nanoPCMs, and the water resistance decreased in the same order. Compared to the mechanical properties of the fabric without nanoPCMs, the stiffness and roughness of the fabrics with nanoPCMs were improved, but the resilience and smoothness of the fabrics were slightly decreased. Consequently, the physical and mechanical properties of VPWR fabrics with nanoPCMs were superior to those of the fabric without nanoPCMs. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 3238-3245, 2011

7. The Use of Carbon Nanotubes in Textile Printing
Author(s): Krucinska, I (Krucinska, Izabella)1; Skrzetuska, E (Skrzetuska, Ewa)1; Urbaniak-Domagala, W (Urbaniak-Domagala, Wieslawa)1
Source: JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE Volume: 121 Issue: 1 Pages: 483-490 DOI: 10.1002/app.33598 Published: JUL 5 2011
Abstract: The characteristic properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), particularly their heat conduction, electrical conductivity, high modulus of elasticity, high strength, and resistance to chemicals, have resulted in widespread application of CNTs in nanotechnologies. In this study, CNTs were used to impart specific functionality to textiles by printing techniques. To this aim, modified commercial aqueous dispersions of multiwalled CNTs from Nanocyl (R) were used for preparing special compositions as paste for printing by conventional techniques (screen printing) and as inks for ink-jet printing to bestow the fabric antistatic and antibacterial properties. Taking into account the importance of the dispersion level of CNT in the printing composition from the point of view of antistatic properties, the quality of the CNT dispersion was assessed on the basis of particle size distribution by means of a DLS PSS Nicomp device. Printings were done on two types of woven fabrics: 100% cotton and 30/70% cotton/polyester blend. The CNTs used in printing were found to impart antistatic and antibacterial properties to the printed fabrics. These imparted properties were resistant to repeated washing.

8. Wrinkle-resistant finishing with dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU) - the effect of co-catalyst
Author(s): Lam, YL (Lam, Yin Ling)1; Kan, CW (Kan, Chi Wai)1; Yuen, CW (Yuen, Chun Wah)1
Source: TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL Volume: 81 Issue: 14 Pages: 1419-1426 DOI: 10.1177/0040517510387206 Published: SEP 2011
Abstract: In the past, wrinkle-resistant finishes on cotton fabrics involved the application of melamine-formaldehyde- or urea-formaldehyde-based resins with many more recent agents being based on dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU). This study reports that the DMDHEU-TiO(2) combination can enhance the wrinkle-resistance of cotton fabrics. The addition of TiO(2) or nano-TiO(2) in the treatment can also act as a multi-functional finishing agent to improve the UV protection property. Moreover, it was found that addition of TiO(2) or nano-TiO(2) could slightly increase the tearing strength of test specimens to compensate for the drawbacks of DMDHEU. However, the addition of metal oxide did not significantly improve the tensile strength of specimens. In addition, it was found that while DMDHEU-treated cotton specimens contained small quantities of free formaldehyde, these levels are reduced when nano-TiO(2) is added to the treatment.

9. Nonwetting, Nonrolling, Stain Resistant Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Coated Textiles
Author(s): Misra, R (Misra, Rahul)1; Cook, RD (Cook, Robert D.)1; Morgan, SE (Morgan, Sarah E.)1
Source: JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE Volume: 115 Issue: 4 Pages: 2322-2331 DOI: 10.1002/app.31365 Published: FEB 15 2010
Abstract: Cotton/polyester fabric surfaces were modified using nanostructured organic-inorganic polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) molecules via solution dip coating. Surface wetting characteristics of coatings prepared from two chemically and structurally different POSS molecules, a closed cage fluorinated dodecatrifluoropropyl POSS (FL-POSS) and an open cage nonfluorinated trisilanolphenyl POSS (Tsp-POSS), were evaluated with time and compared with Teflon. Surface analysis, including Atomic Force Microscopy, SEM/EDAX, and NMR revealed the presence of POSS aggregates on the fabric surface leading to a spiky topography, high roughness, and hysteresis. POSS coated fabrics showed complete reversal of surface wetting characteristics with contact angles higher than the benchmark Teflon surface. Water contact angle measured as a function of time showed equivalent or better performance for POSS-coated surfaces in comparison to Teflon. Furthermore, FL-POSS coated fabric exhibited exceptional stain and acid resistance along with a 38% reduction in relative surface friction. Additionally, "nonslicling" and high surface adhesion behavior of water droplets on the FL-POSS coated fabric are reported. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc, J Appl Polym Sci 115: 2322-2331, 2010

10. Water-repellent Treatment on Military Uniform Fabrics: Physiological and Comfort Implications
Author(s): Gibson, P (Gibson, Phil)
Source: JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL TEXTILES Volume: 38 Issue: 1 Pages: 43-54 DOI: 10.1177/1528083707087833 Published: JUL 2008
Times Cited: 1 (from Web of Science)
Cited References: 12 [ view related records ] Citation MapCitation Map
Abstract: Cost-effective nanotechnology-based water-repellent treatments for clothing fabrics are now commercially available. The effectiveness of these durable water repellent (DWR) fabric treatments are evaluated for application to military uniforms. The addition of a non-wicking finish to clothing fabric negatively impacts comfort in hot and humid environments. Clothing comfort may be improved by refining the DWR fabric treatment process to retain wicking properties on the fabrics inner surface.

11. Durable Hydrophobic Textile Fabric Finishing Using Silica Nanoparticles and Mixed Silanes
Author(s): Roe, B (Roe, Barry); Zhang, XW (Zhang, Xiangwu)1
Source: TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL Volume: 79 Issue: 12 Pages: 1115-1122 DOI: 10.1177/0040517508100184 Published: AUG 2009
Abstract: Cotton fabric surface was treated with combinations of silica nanoparticles, silane hydrophobes, and silane crosslinkers to obtain durable hydrophobicity. Performance analysis was done by measuring the contact angle of water on the treated fabric surface. To evaluate the durability of the surface hydrophobicity, AATCC crocking and laundering tests were performed. Cotton fabrics with good hydrophobicity (contact angle = 1.39.1 degrees) and excellent durability (e.g. 95% recovery of contact angle after laundering) were obtained when treated with Aerosilo 90 nanoparticles, n-octyltrimethoxysilane, and bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane. This study demonstrated that the surface treatment using silica nanoparticles and mixed silanes is a promising alternative to fluoropolymer chemistry for achieving durable hydrophobic fabrics.

12. Recent developments in water, oil and stain repellent treatments (part 2)
Author(s): Namligoz, ES (Namligoz, Eylen Sema)1; Hosaf, E (Hosaf, Erman); Coban, S (Coban, Sueleyman); Gulumser, T (Gulumser, Tulay); Tarakcioglu, I (Tarakcioglu, Isik)1
Source: TEKSTIL VE KONFEKSIYON Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 59-64 Published: JAN-MAR 2007
Abstract: Nowadays due to the growing competition on textile sector, trends in producing and developing multi-functional, protective and comfortable clothes are increased more and more. Water, oil and stain repellent treatments providing the functionality, easy care of clothes have great importance. In this article, it is given information about the fundamental and recent developments of these treatments.


Tuesday, November 8, 2011

Blog Post 11: Invention Team/Timeline

Post the names of the individuals working on your invention team.

Billie Buss

Describe the activities that each person is engaged with and list the timeline for your activities to complete your invention project.

Research on Water- Resistant/ Non-Wet/ Smart Fabric and Clothing with the use of nanoTechnology.  Sport and Dressware specific.

The invention complete project is due Dec 12. Each team needs to create a 24" x 26" poster that describes the invention. Topics/questions to address on the poster are:

what is the issue/opportunity you are trying to address? Describe the background and current efforts to address this issue/opportunity

Socks that keep feet cool in summer/ warm in winter, regulate and promote blood circulation,  are waterproof … yet breathable and moisture wicking.

describe your invention that utilizes nanotechnology, describe what makes the invention based on nanotechnology. 
These socks are made of smartwool integrated with SmartSilver  nano technology and aerogel for insulation.  The result is the best pair of socks on the market for ALL activities and for people who suffer from poor foot circulation.

describe the materials and processing that would be needed to make the invention nano:

Fheet has three thin layers. The inner layer is a moisture wicking smartwool that is extremely soft and comfortable against your skin. An extremely thin middle layer of aerogel insulation, and a fashionable smartwool outer shell.

An aerogel is an open-celled, mesoporous, solid foam that is composed of a network of interconnected nanostructures and that exhibits a porosity (non-solid volume) of no less than 50%.

SmartSilver nanoscale additives can be integrated at the molecular level into natural and synthetic fibers and fabrics, coatings, foams and polymer applications to provide antimicrobial and anti-odor protection that lasts the expected life of the product.

address any safety/environmental concerns
FHeet are completely safe to the user and environment. 

Due to the advanced nano technologies used to produce aerogel insulation, in its raw form aerogel insulation will release extremely fine dust called nano particles. That is why we must encapsulate the aerogel to utilize it in our garments. If the encapsulation is punctured, the aerogel nano-particles will "dust" through the hole and fabrics of the garment. This dust feels like the chalk dust you would rub off of a black board in a school room. It is harmless to the wearer, but the puncture must be fixed to prevent further damage to the panel. 

  • With nanotechnology, less is really more. Small silver particles have a greater surface area available to interface with bacteria, thus increasing efficacy while conserving silver raw materials. Only a tiny amount of silver is needed to get a tremendous amount of benefit.

  • NanoHorizons’ silver additives are embedded in fibers, polymers and coatings. The minute amount of silver ions that these silver particles emit during normal use is the key to silver’s benefits in therapeutics, pathogen control, odor control, and materials preservation. In wastewater, these emitted silver ions are quickly deactivated by common substances—like chloride and sulfide—to form unreactive minerals.

  • address costs for developing and producing

    Additional cost information could not be found.  My intent would be for these socks to be of equal or less cost than original SmartWool socks.

    address any regulations that may need to be addressed

    FHeet's SmartSilver additives are EPA FIFRA registered (#83587-3) for fiber, coating and polymer applications. Our products are in full compliance with EPA regulations and do not endanger the environment.

    address the consumer acceptance of this nano-invention.

    Fheet is ideal for anyone involved in activities such as hunting, ice fisherman, snowmobilers, working in the cold/heat.   If you are one of those people that always gets cold and has to go inside to get warm before you want to.  Diabetics.  If you suffer from poor foot circulation.  If your feet sweat excessively.  Athlete


    Sunday, November 6, 2011

    Blog Post 10: SEM Image

    Post an SEM image of your item explored by your group.

    This is Ricky's fingernail.